BrainTrain project publications related to learning, memory, plasticity and/or executive functioning

2021- In press

  • Martínez-Molina, N., Siponkoski, S.-T., Kuusela, L., Laitinen, S., Holma, M., Ahlfors, M., Jordan-Kilkki, P., Ala-Kauhaluoma, K., Melkas, S., Pekkola, J., Rodriguez-Fornells, A., Laine, M., Ylinen, A., Rantanen, P., Koskinen, S., Cowley, B.U., & Särkämö, T. (2021) Resting-state network plasticity induced by music therapy after traumatic brain injury. Neural Plasticity, 6682471. doi:10.1155/2021/6682471
  • Ramos-Escobar, N., Laine, M., Sanseverino-Dillenburg, M., Cucurell, D., François, C., & Rodriguez-Fornells, A. (2021) The interplay between domain-general and domain-specific mechanisms during the time-course of verbal associative learning: An event-related potential study. NeuroImage, 242:15, 118443. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118443
  • Ritakallio, L., Fellman, D., Jylkkä, J., Waris, O., Lönnroth, N., Nervander, R., Salmi, J., & Laine, M. (2021) The pursuit of effective working memory training: A pre‑registered randomised controlled trial with a novel varied training protocol. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. doi:10.1007/s41465-021-00235-2
  • Seesjärvi, E., Puhakka, J., Aronen, E. T., Lipsanen, J., Mannerkoski, M., Hering, A., Zuber, S., Kliegel, M., Laine, M., & Salmi, J. (2021). Quantifying ADHD symptoms in open-ended everyday life contexts with a new virtual reality task. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:10.1177/10870547211044214
  • Siponkoski, S.-T., Koskinen, S., Laitinen, S., Holma, M., Ahlfors, M., Jordan-Kilkki, P., Ala-Kauhaluoma, K., Martinez-Molina, N., Melkas, S., Laine, M., Ylinen, A., Zasler, N., Rantanen, P., Lipsanen, J., & Särkämö, T. (2021) Effects of neurological music therapy on behavioral and emotional recovery after traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled cross-over trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. doi:10.1080/09602011.2021.1890138
  • Waris, O., Fellman, D., Jylkkä, J., & Laine, M. (2021) Stimulus novelty, task demands, and strategy use in episodic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74(5), 872–888. doi:10.1177/1747021820980301
  • Waris, O., Jylkkä, J., Fellman, D., & Laine, M. (2021) Spontaneous strategy use during a working memory updating task. Acta Psychologica, 212, 103211. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2020.103211
  • Wikman, P., Sahari, E., Salmela, V., Leminen, A., Leminen, M., Laine, M., & Alho, K. (2021) Breaking down the cocktail party: Attentional modulation of cerebral audiovisual speech processing. Neuroimage, 224, 117365. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117365


  • Brini, S., Sohrabi, H.R., Hebert, J.J., Forrest, M.R.L., Laine, M., Hämäläinen, H., Karrasch, M., Peiffer, J.J., Martins, R.N., & Fairchild, T.J. (2020) Bilingualism is associated with a delayed onset of dementia but not with a lower risk of developing it: a systematic review with meta-analyses. Neuropsychology Review, 30(1), 1-24. doi:10.1007/s11065-020-09426-8
  • Coran, M., Rodriguez-Fornells, A., Ramos-Escobar, N., Laine, M., & Martin, N. (2020) Word learning in aphasia: treatment implications and structural connectivity analyses. Topics in Language Disorders, 40(1), 81–109. doi:10.1097/TLD.0000000000000204
  • Fellman, D., Jylkkä, J., Waris, O., Soveri, A., Ritakallio, L., Haga, S., Salmi, J., Nyman, T.N., & Laine, M. (2020) The role of strategy use in working memory training outcomes. Journal of Memory and Language, 110, 104064. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2019.104064
  • Fellman, D., Ritakallio, L., Waris, O., Jylkkä, J., & Laine, M. (2020) Beginning of the pandemic: COVID-19 elicited anxiety as a predictor of working memory performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 576466. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.576466
  • Fellman, D., Salmi, J., Ritakallio, L., Ellfolk, U., Rinne, J., & Laine, M. (2020) Training working memory updating in Parkinson’s disease: A randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 30(4), 673–708. doi:10.1080/09602011.2018.1489860
  • Forsberg, A., Fellman, D., Laine, M., Johnson, W., & Logie, R.H. (2020) Strategy mediation in working memory training in younger and older adults. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73(8), 1206-1226. doi:10.1177/1747021820915107
  • Jylkkä, J., Laine, M., & Lehtonen, M. (2020) Does language switching behavior rely on general executive functions? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, First View, 1-13. doi:10.1017/S1366728920000619
  • Nordenswan, E,. Kataja, E.-L., Deater-Deckard, K., Korja, R., Karrasch, M., Laine, M., Karlsson, L., & Karlsson, H. (2020) Latent structure of executive functioning/learning tasks in the CogState computerized battery. Sage Open, 10(3). doi:10.1177/2158244020948846
  • Perceval, G., Martin, A.K., Copland, D.A., Laine, M., & Meinzer, M. (2020) Multisession transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates verbal learning and memory consolidation in young and older adults. Brain and Language, 205, 104788. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2020.104788
  • Salmi, J., Metwalye, M., Tohka, J., Alho, K., Leppämäki, S., Tani, P., Koski, A., Vanderwal, T., & Laine, M. (2020) ADHD desynchronizes brain activity during watching a distracted multi-talker conversation. NeuroImage, 216, 116352. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116352
  • Salmi, J., Ritakallio, L., Fellman, D., Ellfolk, U., Rinne, J.O., & Laine, M. (2020) Disentangling the role of working memory in Parkinson’s disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 12, 572037. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2020.572037
  • Salmi, J., Soveri, A., Salmela, V., Alho, K., Leppämäki, S., Tani, P., Koski, A., Jaeggi, S. M., & Laine, M. (2020) Working memory training restores aberrant brain activity in adult attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 41(17), 4876-4681. doi:10.1002/hbm.25164
  • Sihvonen, A.J., Leo, V., Ripollés, P., Lehtovaara, T., Ylönen, A., Rajanaro, P., Laitinen, S., Forsblom, A., Saunavaara, J., Autti, T., Laine, M., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., Tervaniemi, M., Soinila, S., & Särkämö, T. (2020) Vocal music enhances memory and language recovery after stroke: pooled results from two RCTs. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 7(11), 2272-2287. doi:10.1002/acn3.51217
  • Siponkoski, S.-T., Martínez-Molina, N., Kuusela, L., Laitinen, S., Holma, M., Ahlfors, M., Jordan-Kilkki, P., Ala-Kauhaluoma, K., Melkas, S., Pekkola, J., Rodriguez-Fornells, A., Laine, M., Ylinen, A., Rantanen, P., Koskinen, S., Lipsanen, J., & Särkämö, P. (2020) Music therapy enhances executive functions and prefrontal structural neuroplasticity after traumatic brain injury: evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Neurotrauma, 37(4), 618-634. doi:10.1089/neu.2019.6413


  • Lukasik, K.M., Waris, O., Soveri, A., Lehtonen, M., & Laine, M. (2019). The relationship of anxiety and stress with working memory performance in a large non-depressed sample. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(4). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00004
  • Waris, O., Jaeggi, S.M., Seitz, A.R., Lehtonen, M., Soveri, A., Lukasik, K.M., Söderström, U., Hoffing, R.A.C., & Laine, M. (2019). Video gaming and working memory: A large-scale cross-sectional correlative study. Computers in Human Behavior, 97, 94-103. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2019.03.005
  • Salmi, J., Vilà-Balló, A., Soveri, A., Rostan, C., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., Lehtonen, M., & Laine, M. (2019). Working memory updating training modulates a cascade of event-related potentials depending on task load. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 166, 107085. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2019.107085
  • Leo, V., Sihvonen, A.J., Linnavalli, T., Tervaniemi, M., Laine, M., & Soinila, S. (2019). Cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the mnemonic effect of songs after stroke. NeuroImage: Clinical, 24, 101948. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101948


  • Fellman, D., Soveri, A., Viktorsson, C., Haga, S., Nylund, J., Johansson, S., Edman, J., von Renteln, F., & Laine, M. (2018). Selective updating of sentences: Introducing a new measure of verbal working memory. Applied Psycholinguistics, 39(2), 275-301. doi:10.1017/S0142716417000182
  • Jylkkä, J., Lehtonen, M., Kuusakoski, A., Lindholm, F., Hut, S., & Laine, M. (2018). The role of general executive functions in receptive language switching and monitoring. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(4), 839-855. doi:10.1017/S1366728917000384
  • Laine, M., Fellman, D., Waris, O., & Nyman T.N. (2018). The early effects of external and internal strategies on working memory updating training. Scientific Reports, 8, 4045. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22396-5
  • Lehtonen, M., Soveri, A., Laine, A., Järvenpää, J., De Bruin, A. & Antfolk, J. (2018). Is bilingualism associated with enhanced executive functioning? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 144(4), 394-425. doi:10.1037/bul0000142
  • Lukasik, K.M., Lehtonen, M., Salmi, J., Meinzer, M., Joutsa, J., & Laine, M. (2018). No effects of stimulating the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex with tDCS on verbal working memory updating. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 738. doi:10.3389/fnins.2017.00738
  • Lukasik, K.M., Lehtonen, M., Soveri, A., Waris, O., Jylkkä, J. & Laine, M. (2018). Bilingualism and working memory performance: evidence from a large-scale online study. PLoS ONE, 13(11), e0205916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205916
  • Salmi J., Nyberg, L., & Laine, M. (2018). Working memory training mostly engages general-purpose large-scale networks for learning. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 93, 108-122. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.019
  • Soveri, A., Lehtonen, M., Karlsson, L.C., Lukasik, K., Antfolk, A., & Laine, M. (2018). Test-retest reliability of five frequently used executive tasks in healthy adults. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 25(2), 155-165. doi:10.1080/23279095.2016.1263795
  • Vilà-Balló, A., Salmi, J., Soveri, A., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., Lehtonen, M., & Laine, M. (2018). Neural signatures for active maintenance and interference during working memory updating. Biological Psychology, 132, 233-243. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.01.007
  • Waris, O., Soveri, A., Lukasik, K.M., Lehtonen, M., & Laine, M. (2018). Working memory and the Big Five. Personality and Individual Differences, 130, 26-35. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.03.027


  • Bäckman, L., Waris, O., Johansson, J., Andersson, M., Rinne, J.O., Alakurtti, K., Soveri, A., Laine, M., & Nyberg, L. (2017). Increased dopamine release after working-memory updating training: Neurochemical correlates of transfer. Scientific Reports, 7, 7160. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07577-y
  • Fellman, D., Soveri, A., Waris, O., & Laine, M. (2017). Training of verbal working memory at sentence level fails to show transfer. Frontiers in Communication, 2(14). doi:10.3389/fcomm.2017.00014
  • François, C., Cunillera, T., Garcia, E., Laine, M., & Rodriguez-Fornells, A. (2017). Neurophysiological evidence for the interplay of speech segmentation and word-referent mapping during novel word learning. Neuropsychologia, 98, 56-67. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.10.006
  • Grönholm-Nyman, P., Soveri, A., Rinne, J.O., Ek, E., Nyholm, A., Stigsdotter Neely, A., & Laine, M. (2017). Limited effects of set shifting training in healthy older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 9(69), 1-21. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2017.00069
  • Havas, V., Laine, M., & Rodríguez Fornells, A. (2017). Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language. Neuropsychologia, 101, 47-56. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.04.005
  • Jylkkä, J., Soveri, A., Wahlström, J., Lehtonen, M., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., & Laine, M. (2017) Relationship between language switching experience and executive functions in bilinguals: an Internet-based study. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 29(4), 404-419. doi:10.1080/20445911.2017.1282489
  • Saarela, C., Joutsa, J., Laine, M., Parkkola, R., Rinne, J.O., & Karrasch, M. (2017). Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study. PLoS ONE, 12(8), e0182541. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182541
  • Soveri, A., Antfolk, J., Karlsson, L.C., Salo, B., & Laine, M. (2017). Working memory training revisited: a multi-level meta-analysis of n-back training studies. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 1077–1096. doi:10.3758/s13423-016-1217-0
  • Soveri, A., Karlsson, E.P.A., Waris, O., Grönholm-Nyman, P., & Laine, M. (2017). Pattern of near transfer effects following working memory training with a dual n-back task. Experimental Psychology, 64(4), 240–252. doi:10.1027/1618-3169/a000370
  • Tort-Merino, A., Valech, N., Peñaloza, C., Grönholm-Nyman, P., León, M., Olives, J., Estanga, A., Ecay, M., Fortea, J., Martínez-Lage, P., Molinuevo, J. L., Laine, M., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., & Rami, L. (2017). Early detection of learning difficulties when confronted with novel information in preclinical Alzheimer's Disease stage 1. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 58(3), 855–870. doi:10.3233/JAD-161173
  • Waris, O., Soveri, A., Ahti, M., Hoffing, R.C., Ventus, D., Jaeggi, S.M., Seitz, A.R., & Laine, M. (2017). A latent factor analysis of working memory measures using large-scale data. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1062. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01062


  • Cunillera, T., Laine, M., & Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2016). Headstart for speech segmentation: a neural signature for the anchor word effect. Neuropsychologia, 82, 189-199. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.01.011
  • Peñaloza, C., Mirman, D., Tuomiranta, L., Benetello, A., Heikius, I.-M., Järvinen, S., Majos, M.C., Cardona, P., Juncadella, M., Laine, M., Martin, N., & Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2016). Novel word acquisition in aphasia: facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts. Cortex, 79, 14-31. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.03.009
  • Saarela, C., Karrasch, M., Ilvesmäki, T., Parkkola, R., Rinne, J.O., & Laine, M. (2016). The relationship between recognition memory for emotion-laden words and white matter microstructure in normal older subjects. Neuroreport, 27(18), 1345-1347. doi:10.1097/WNR.0000000000000704


  • Havas, V., Waris, O., Vaquero, L., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., & Laine, M. (2015). Morphological learning in a novel language: a cross-language comparison. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(7), 1426-1441. doi:10.1080/17470218.2014.983531
  • Karlsson, L.C., Soveri, A., Räsänen, P., Kärnä, A., Delatte, S., Lagerström, E., Mård, L., Steffansson, M., Lehtonen, M., & Laine, M. (2015). Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries. PLoS ONE, 10(4), e0125867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125867
  • Martin, N., Laine, M. & Harley, T.A. (2015). How can connectionist cognitive models of language inform models of language rehabilitation? In A.E. Hillis (Ed.) Handbook on Adult Language Disorders. Second Edition. New York: Psychology Press (pp. 405-434).
  • Peñaloza, C., Benetello, A., Tuomiranta, L., Heikius, I.-M., Järvinen, S., Majos, M.C., Cardona, P., Juncadella, M., Laine, M., Martin, N., & Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2015). Speech segmentation in aphasia. Aphasiology, 29(6), 724-743. doi:10.1080/02687038.2014.982500
  • Tallus, J., Soveri, A., Hämäläinen, H., Tuomainen, J., & Laine, M. (2015). Effects of auditory attention training with the dichotic listening task: Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139318. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139318
  • Waris, O., Soveri, A., & Laine, M. (2015). Transfer after working memory updating training. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0138734. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138734


Department of Psychology
Abo Akademi University
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FI-20500 Turku